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Updated on Jan 07, 2020
Python module is a normal python file which can store function, variable, classes, constants etc. Module helps us to organize related codes . For e.g math module in python has mathematical related functions.
Creating module #
Create a new file called
mymodule.py and write the following code.
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foo = 100 def hello(): print("i am from mymodule.py")
As you can see we have defined a global variable
foo and a function
hello() in our module. Now to use this module in our programs we first need to import it using import statement like this
Now you can use variable and call functions in the
mymodule.py using the following code.
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import mymodule print(mymodule.foo) print(mymodule.hello())
100 i am from mymodule.py
Remember you need to specify name of module first to access it's variables and functions, failure to so will result in error.
Using import statements imports everything in the module, what if you want to access only specific function or variable? This is where the
from statement comes, here is how to use it.
from mymodule import foo # this statement import only foo variable from mymodule print(foo)
In this case you don't need to specify module name to access variables and function.
dir() method #
dir() is an in-built method used to find all attributes (i.e all available classes, functions, variables and constants ) of the object. As we have already discussed everything in python is object, we can use the
dir() method to find attributes of the module like this:
dir() returns a list of string containing the names of the available attributes.
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>>> dir(mymodule) ['__builtins__', '__cached__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__', '__spec__', 'foo', 'hello']
As you can see besides foo and hello there are additional attributes in the
mymodule. These are in-built attributes which python provides to all the modules automatically.
Congratulations you have completed all building blocks you need to master Python!!
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