Python inheritance and polymorphism

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Inheritance allows programmer to create a general class first then later extend it to more specialized class. It also allows programmer to write better code.

Using inheritance you can inherit all access data fields and methods, plus you can add your own methods and fields, thus inheritance provide a way to organize code, rather than rewriting it from scratch.

In object-oriented terminology when class X  extend class Y , then Y  is called super class or base class and X  is called subclass or derived class. One more point to note that only data fields and method which are not private are accessible by child classes, private data fields and methods are accessible only inside the class.

Syntax to create a subclass is:

Let take an example to illustrate the point.

Expected Output:

here we have created base class Vehicle  and it’s subclass Car . Notice that we have not defined getName()  in Car  class but we are still able to access it, because class Car  inherits it from Vehicle  class. In the above code super()  method is used to call method of the base class. Here is the how super()  works

Suppose you need to call a method called get_information()  in the base class from child class , you can do so using the following code.

similarly you can call base class constructor from child class constructor using the following code.

Multiple inheritance

Unlike languages like Java and C#, python allows multiple inheritance i.e you can inherit from multiple classes at the same time like this,

Let’s take an example:

Expected Output:

As you can see becuase ChildClass  inherited MySuperClass1 , MySuperClass2 , object of ChildClass  is now able to access method_super1()  and method_super2() .

Overriding methods

To override a method in the base class, sub class needs to define a method of same signature. (i.e same method name and same number of parameters as method in base class).

Expected Output:

Here we are overriding m1()  method from the base class. Try commenting m1()  method  in B  class and now m1()  method from Base class i.e class A  will run.

Expected Output:

isinstance() function

isinstance()  function is used to determine whether the object is an instance of the class or not.

Syntax: isinstance(object, class_type)

Next chapter Exception Handling.

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12 Comments on "Python inheritance and polymorphism"

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Savio Pereira
Savio Pereira
2 months 4 days ago

I am using Python 2.7 and I get the following error when using the ‘super()’ method: TypeError: super() argument 1 must be type, not classobj

I was using the super() method with two arguments .

super (ChildClass, self).__init__()

I had to change my Base Class Vehicle to a new style class (Link) by declaring it as:

class Vehicle(object):

Only then did the super() method work. I am wondering how it worked for you. Has it got to do with the version of Python

Vishal Tyagi
Vishal Tyagi
11 months 23 days ago
Hi, I am running the below code and it always errors out. Can you point where and what it is that I am doing wrong: import math class Circle: def __init__(self, radius): self.__radius = radius def getRadius(self): return self.__radius def setRadius(self, radius): self.__radius = radius def area(self): return math.pi * self.__radius ** 2 def __add__(self, another_circle): return Circle( self.__radius + another_circle.__radius ) class rec(Circle): def __init__(self,radius, diamtr): super().__init__(radius) self.__diamtr = diamtr def getdiamtr(self): return self.__diamtr * self.getRadius() c = rec(6,9) print(c.getdiamtr()) print(c.getRadius())
1 year 6 months ago

the first example, line print(c.getName()) ,no output for this line.